News

Volume XLIV:  Acids Handling

Volume XLIV: Acids Handling

Jan 04, 2021

Inorganic acids play a major role in the chemical process industries (CPI). They are used as raw materials, catalysts or finishing and pH control agents in the manufacture of a wide range of chemical products, from fertilizers to detergents, and even foods. Given their widespread use, a major issue in the CPI is the proper and safe handling of the acids, the adequate materials selection for the pieces of equipment, piping and fittings used in the process, and the correct storage and even disposal of these materials. Read more

Volume XLVIII:  Avoid Brittle Fracture

Volume XLVIII: Avoid Brittle Fracture

Nov 19, 2020

During an emergency, equipment failure or a planned maintenance event, hydrocarbon-processing industry (HPI) pressure vessels are normally depressurized. This action may cause auto-refrigeration and low-metal temperature situations in which the likelihood of brittle fracture may occur in steel vessels and reactors. This case history describes the results from a simulation regarding auto-refrigeration effects on HPI reactors. The study also included investigation on brittle-fracture phenomenon and recommendations for a proactive engineering approach to mitigate such failures. Read more

Volume XLVII:  Corrosion under insulation is a hidden problem

Volume XLVII: Corrosion under insulation is a hidden problem

Nov 19, 2020

Corrosion under insulation (CUI) is one of the costliest avoidable problems facing the hydrocarbon processing industry (HPI) today. CUI afflicts refineries— specifically, the steel piping, storage tanks, container vessels and other process equipment within the plants that are subject to extreme temperature fluctuations. Calcium silicate or mineral-wool insulation applied to the pipe or vessel can mitigate the thermal cycling effects. The presence of seams, gaps, or other discontinuities in the insulation layer makes them susceptible to infiltration by outside moisture or the process environment. Read more

Volume XLVI.III:  Design Operations & Maintenance friendly pressure vessels - Part 3

Volume XLVI.III: Design Operations & Maintenance friendly pressure vessels - Part 3

Nov 19, 2020

While part of an operating company’s technical support team, the author was asked for a particular grade of mineral oil. It was discovered that the oil was requisitioned to apply on the inside surface of a vessel before it was put back into operation. Further questioning revealed that the vessel GA drawing included the comment, “Mineral oil, grade xxxx, is to be applied inside the vessel.” The mineral oil coating was meant for new vessels as a rust preventive during transportation and prolonged storage. The technicians had unknowingly been following the procedure for vessel maintenance. Read more

Volume XLVI.II:  Design operations & maintenance friendly pressure vessels - Part 2

Volume XLVI.II: Design operations & maintenance friendly pressure vessels - Part 2

Nov 17, 2020

Throughout this article, the terminology “vessel” is used to represent pressure vessels, drums, columns, towers, heat exchanger shells and any equipment designed using pressure vessel codes, such as ASME-VIII, EN 13445, PD 5500, etc. The terms “codes, standards, specifications, regulations and recommended practices” are used to broadly define the overall prevailing industry design requirements, recommendations and practices. Read more

Volume XLVI.I:  Design Operations & Maintenance Friendly Vessels - Part 1

Volume XLVI.I: Design Operations & Maintenance Friendly Vessels - Part 1

Jun 08, 2020

For vessel designers, fabricators and quality control inspectors, this is a onetime responsibility. They probably never look back once a vessel is out of their territory. The reason is simple: almost all pressure vessels are designed per specific requirements of the asset owners. A few proprietary designs are exceptional cases, such as reactors, desalters and coalescer vessels, etc. However, only the internals would be proprietary, and the base vessel would still be required to comply with the owner’s general specifications. In such cases, it is important that the end users do not feel overwhelmed by the proprietary designs and adhere to their company’s basic vessel specifications. Read more

Volume XLV:  Q&A from ASME B31.3

Volume XLV: Q&A from ASME B31.3

Jun 08, 2020

ASME B 31.3 is the bible of process piping engineering and every piping engineer should frequently use this code for his knowledge enhancement. But to study a code similar to B 31.3 is time consuming and also difficult because the contents are not at all interesting. Also every now and then it will say to refer to some other point of the code which will irritate you. But still every piping engineer should learn few basic points from it. The following literature will try to point out 11 basic and useful points from the code about which every piping engineer must be aware. Read more

Volume XLIII.V:  ASME Sec I & Sec VIII Fundementals - Part 5

Volume XLIII.V: ASME Sec I & Sec VIII Fundementals - Part 5

Mar 11, 2020

ASME SECTION VIII – Main Scopes: Minimum requirements for safe construction and operation, per Division 1, 2, and 3. • Section VIII Division 1: 15 psig < P < 3000 psig. • Other exclusions: Internals (except for attachment weld to vessel); Fired process heaters; Pressure containers integral with machinery; Piping systems. • Section VIII, Division 2, Alternative Rules: 15 psig < P ≤ 10,000 psig - identical to Division 1, but the different requirements are: Allowable stress design; Stress calculations; Design; Quality control; Fabrication and inspection. Read more

Volume XLIII.IV:  ASME Sec I & Sec VIII Fundamentals - Part 4

Volume XLIII.IV: ASME Sec I & Sec VIII Fundamentals - Part 4

Jan 08, 2020

Flanged and dished heads can be formed from carbon steel, stainless steel, and other ferrous and nonferrous metals and alloys. Flanged and dished heads can be formed in a size range from 4 inches to 300 inches diameter and in thickness range of 1/8 in. to 1 ½ inches thick. The ASME Section VIII – Division 1 determines the rules for dished heads. The most common configurations are spherical, hemispherical, elliptical (or ellipsoidal) and torispherical shapes. Read more

Volume XLIII.III:  ASME Sec I & Sec VIII Fundamentals - Part 3

Volume XLIII.III: ASME Sec I & Sec VIII Fundamentals - Part 3

Jan 07, 2020

The ASME Section VIII, rules for fired or unfired pressure vessels, is divided into three divisions applicable to design, fabrication, inspection, testing, and certification. The formulae and allowable stresses presented in this sketch are only for Division 1, the main code. It contains mandatory and nonmandatory appendices detailing supplementary design criteria, nondestructive examination and inspection acceptance standards. Read more

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